Competition among Stimulus–Stimulus Relations in an Intelligence-Test Format

Abstract

A behavior analytic model of analogical reasoning has been developed over the past two decades. Applying this model, we analyzed 12 visual analogies of the Test Of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI-2) and predicted competition between stimulus-stimulus relations based on the number of nonarbitrary relations shared between the sample and the comparisons. Thirty-three adult participants solved the selected items while their eye movements were monitored using an eye-tracking device. For every item, a repeated measures ANOVA showed that observation duration was significantly higher in the response alternatives that shared more nonarbitrary relations with the sample (p < 0.001). The correct comparison was observed for a longer period of time, followed by the higher rank distractors, and then the rest. The effect size ranged from 0.293 to 0.764. The systematic application of the behavior analytic model of analogical reasoning allowed us to predict the behavior of participants taking an intelligence test based on visual analogies, at least to some extent. This work extends the application of the behavior analytic model of analogical reasoning to a rather complex situation (i.e., a published intelligence test).


Wed, 18 Jul 2018, 5:00 pm


The Role of Experiential Avoidance in Problematic Pornography Viewing

Abstract

Research suggests that online pornography use can have harmful consequences for some individuals, but the psychological processes that contribute to problematic viewing are unclear. This study sought to evaluate the role of experiential avoidance in the negative consequences of online pornography viewing in a small cross-sectional survey sample of 91 male college students who reported viewing. Results indicated that viewing pornography for experientially avoidant motivations was related to more frequent viewing and predicted self-reported negative consequences of viewing over and above other motivations (e.g., sexual pleasure, curiosity, excitement seeking). Although more frequent viewing was related to more self-reported negative consequences, this relation was consistently mediated by viewing for experiential avoidance in this sample. Study limitations included a homogeneous sample of primarily white students, a relatively low rate of reported pornography viewing, and use of only self-report assessment. Results suggest that viewing to avoid unwanted emotions might account for both frequent viewing and its negative consequences, highlighting a promising target for future interventions seeking to reduce problematic pornography viewing.


Tue, 17 Jul 2018, 5:00 pm



Emergence of New Stimulus Classes by Exclusion in Children and Adolescents

Abstract

Children and adolescents from four age groups (4, 8, 11, and 14 years of age) learned the baseline conditional relations for the emergence of two three-member equivalence classes. Then, they were exposed to exclusion trials that included baseline stimuli as defined stimuli to be rejected, while another, undefined stimulus had to be selected in the presence of an undefined sample. Emergent performance in symmetry and transitivity relations with stimuli related by exclusion was tested to probe for evidence of the emergence of a new stimulus class (class 3). Then, participants were exposed to new exclusion trials which employed class 3 stimuli as defined stimulus, and symmetry and transitivity conditional relations were again tested with the new stimuli related by exclusion to identify the emergence of a new class (class 4). Participants of the four age groups showed emergence and expansion of equivalence classes by exclusion, and use of the exclusion class stimuli as a basis for the emergence of a new class by exclusion. The likelihood of equivalence emergence with stimuli related by exclusion decreased in 5-year-old children when symmetry and transitivity were tested for exclusion classes, but did not for baseline classes. Some sources of control for accurate responding to the tests are discussed.


Sun, 15 Jul 2018, 5:00 pm


Equivalence-Based Instruction with Nonfood Items to Increase Portion-Size Estimation Accuracy

Abstract

Stimulus equivalence paradigms are successful interventions for teaching individuals a variety of skills. In particular, researchers have taught individuals how to more accurately estimate portion sizes of foods using equivalence-based instruction (EBI). This area of research lacks information on the effects of using nonfood items during EBI. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether nonfood items could be used during training to increase portion-size estimation accuracy. Participants were three adult females. Preferred and nonpreferred foods were used to assess generalization of portion-size estimation accuracy. Foods were identified through an assessment and varied per participant. Two nonfood items were used for training and one novel nonfood item was to assess for generalization. Three classes of stimuli were taught using EBI (i.e., ¼ cup, ½ cup, and 1 cup). The members of each class were represented by portion-size measurement aids, amounts on paper plates, and measuring cups. All participants more accurately estimated each portion size of nonfood items after training sessions. Accurate estimation also generalized to preferred and nonpreferred foods, as well as a novel nonfood item, for all participants.


Sun, 8 Jul 2018, 5:00 pm


Common Physical Properties Improve Metaphor Effect Even in the Context of Multiple Examples

Abstract

A previous experimental analog study by Sierra et al. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 16, 265–279 (2016) showed that including common physical properties of participants’ pain in the metaphor content improved its effect in promoting pain tolerance. Using a 2x2 factorial design, this study analyzed the effect of common physical properties in the context of multiple examples of functionally equivalent metaphors. Eighty-four participants responded to a measure of experiential avoidance. They were subsequently exposed to a cold-pressor task at pretest. Participants were then randomly assigned to four experimental protocols: (a) three functionally equivalent metaphors with common physical properties of participants’ pain, (b) three functionally equivalent metaphors without common physical properties, (c) a metaphor with common physical properties that was repeated three times, and (d) a metaphor without common physical properties that was repeated three times. Participants were then reexposed to the cold-pressor task (posttest). Bayesian data analyses showed that the presence of common physical properties was the only variable associated with an increase of the metaphor effect, and this was independent of the number of metaphors proposed. The update of evidence by means of a Bayes factor meta-analysis showed that data very strongly support the hypothesis of common physical properties being an effective component of metaphors. These results highlight the relevance of training therapists in designing metaphors with common physical properties of the clients’ discomfort.


Sun, 8 Jul 2018, 5:00 pm


Discrete Choice Experiments on The Acceptability of Monetary-Based Health Treatments: A Replication and Extension to Deposit Contracts

Abstract

Although incentive-based treatments can promote a range of health-related outcomes, including smoking cessation and weight loss, researchers have found that they have poor acceptability under some conditions. The present studies add to the literature by examining the current acceptability of incentive-based treatments using discrete choice experiments in which low acceptability was previously demonstrated. In Study 1, we assessed the acceptability of financial and grocery voucher incentives compared to standard treatments for smoking cessation and weight loss (n = 51). In Study 2, we assessed the acceptability of deposit contracts and financial incentives versus standard treatments (n = 50). Acceptability was measured as the proportion of participants who chose incentive-based treatments over standard treatments, evaluated across a range of effectiveness levels (10–40%). In both studies, financial incentives and standard treatments were equivalently acceptable when stated effectiveness was equal. Deposit contract acceptability was also equivalent to financial incentives and standard treatments at equal effectiveness levels. Last, the acceptability of all incentives increased as stated effectiveness increased. Our findings correspond with some recent evaluations indicating that incentive-based treatments may be more acceptable than previously shown. Future work should explore methods to increase their adoption across diverse stakeholders and settings.


Sun, 1 Jul 2018, 5:00 pm


Derived Relational Responding and Intelligence: Assessing the Relationship Between the PEAK-E Pre-assessment and IQ with Individuals with Autism and Related Disabilities

Abstract

The present study evaluated the relationship between derived relational responding demonstrated by 64 individuals with developmental or intellectual disabilities (90.63% of which had an autism diagnosis) and their corresponding performance on standardized IQ assessments. Participants’ relational abilities were assessed using the Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Equivalence Pre-Assessment (PEAK-E-PA), and IQ was assessed using either the WISC-IV Short Form assessment or the WPPSI-III Short Form assessment. The data indicated a strong, significant correlation between participant scores on the PEAK-E-PA and IQ both in terms of raw IQ (r = .843, p

Mon, 11 Jun 2018, 5:00 pm



J. R. Kantor’s Philosophical Dissertation and His Psychological Science

Abstract

J. R. Kantor presented his dissertation on philosophical categories to the Department of Philosophy at the University of Chicago. As such, the work contained no discussion of any of the historical or contemporary topics and issues of psychology. Despite the dissertation’s omission of matters deemed to be important for psychological science, Kantor has had a significant impact on the discipline. This article addresses links between the philosophical content in Kantor’s dissertation and his contributions to the scientific discipline of psychology based on interbehaviorism.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


Prompting Sidman Avoidance Behavior in Betta splendens

Abstract

Previous research has found that Betta splendens (Siamese fighting fish) often do not learn Sidman avoidance behavior, whereas other fish species, including Carassius auratus (goldfish), readily do. The present study looked at whether Betta splendens could be taught Sidman avoidance of water disturbance during four conditions: a baseline condition, two intervention or teaching phases, and a return-to-baseline condition. During the first baseline conditions three fish were exposed to a divided experimental tank that delivered water disturbance on a 30-s response-flow (i.e., water turbulence) interval after the fish remained on one side of the two-sided tank. Avoidance was defined as crossing between the sides of the tank within the 30-s interval. If the fish did not cross over, it was exposed to a 10-s flow-flow interval of water disturbance, from which it could escape by crossing over. During the first intervention or teaching phase, following each 30-s interval of non-responding (i.e., no crossover), the fish were prompted by the experimenter using a hand-held barrier to emit the avoidance response of crossing over. The crossing over responses were immediately reinforced by presenting a mirror in front of the fish. During the second teaching phase, the schedule of reinforcement was changed to a variable ratio. The second baseline condition was identical to the first baseline condition. Results showed an increase in the frequency of independent (i.e., unprompted) crossovers between the two sides of the experimental tank during the intervention phases. During the return-to-baseline condition the increased responding was maintained for one of the three fish, suggesting that at least some members of this species can learn Sidman avoidance.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


Quantifying the Empirical Growth of Relational Frame Theory Research: a Cautionary Note

Abstract

Relational frame theory (RFT) is a modern, contextual behavioral theory of human language and cognition. A recent article by O’Connor, Farrell, Munnelly, and McHugh (2017) provided an updated citation analysis of data-based and nondata-based articles citing RFT-related terms as a proxy for the influence RFT has had on the scientific literature. Here, we evaluate the claims made by O’Connor et al. and suggest that caution should be exercised when interpreting some of their findings. Progress has, in many ways, clearly been made, but we argue that the growth in RFT outputs is more nuanced than at first appears.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


J. R. Kantor: Theory as the Basic Research Instrument

Abstract

J. R. Kantor must be recognized for his contributions to the subject matter and logic of the theory of psychological phenomena. Kantor stressed the distinction between biological and psychological behavior and proposed the category of the interbehavioral field as a logical frame to develop an adequate psychological system. In this article, the author describes the formulation of a general behavior theory in accordance with Kantor’s proposal and illustrates some systematic and heuristic achievements in such a direction.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


Psychological Events as Integrated Fields

Abstract

J. R. Kantor had an exceptional career with great implications for the philosophy of science and science of psychology. The present commentary provides an overview of Kantor’s construction of psychological events as integrated fields. In doing so, specific attention is given to constructs and events in general, and in the domain of psychology specifically. Related topics, such as the subject matters of the various sciences, are also considered. The unique, multi-factored field nature of Kantor’s psychological event construct is highlighted and contrasted with more common constructions in the field of behavior science. The implications of Kantor’s psychological event for scientific investigation are considered.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


Kantor’s Interbehaviorism in Colombia

Abstract

The presence of Kantor´s Interbehavioral psychology in Colombia is shown in this paper. Interbehavioral psychology was first known by the influence of Mexican psychologist Emilio Ribes-Iñesta in 1978. Then, his papers and books together influenced the development of research group in the National University of Colombia leaded by the author of this paper. Members of this group have been doing theoretical and empirical studies that are mentioned in the paper. Currently, several of them are professors in Colombian and Mexican universities. Taking these considerations into account, it is concluded that Kantor´s influence in Colombian psychology is alive and has been fruitful.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


Assessing the Effects of a Relational Training Intervention on Fluid Intelligence Among a Sample of Socially Disadvantaged Children in Bangladesh

Abstract

A growing consensus is that performances on standardized intelligence tests can be positively influenced by interventions that focus on improving relational reasoning. One such intervention, known as SMART (Strengthening Mental Abilities with Relational Training), consists of presenting participants with increasingly complex exemplars of relational reasoning tasks involving premises associated along same-as, opposite-of, more-than, and less-than relations. Following multiple training and testing sessions involving these relations, increased fluency in SMART is related to enhanced performances on tests of intellectual ability (Cassidy et al., 2016). The current study expands upon previous investigations on SMART in two ways. First, we explored whether the amount of training undertaken can predict changes in intelligence test performances. Second, we assessed whether SMART training could be effective for a non-English speaking, socioeconomically disadvantaged cohort. Changes in intelligence were assessed via administrations of the standard Raven’s Progressive Matrices before and after SMART training. Our results show that the stage of SMART training completed is positively related to changes in Ravens’ performances and that such training can be effective for non-English cohorts.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


A Summary of Methods for Measuring Delay Discounting in Young Children

Abstract

Delay discounting is a process hypothesized to underlie impulsive decision-making and is associated with a host of risky health behaviors, addictive behaviors, and psychiatric diagnoses. While delay discounting has primarily been studied in adult populations, these assessments have potential to facilitate early identification of impulsivity, particularly for children who are at risk for poor long-term outcomes. As a first step toward early identification of risk based on delay discounting, we reviewed the literature including pre-adolescent children to determine (a) for whom delay discounting has been assessed, (b) what assessment procedures have been used, and (c) how assessment parameters affect discounting estimates. Of the 21 identified studies, the majority of participants were children 7 years of age and older who were typically developing or had attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Hypothetical choices about money were most often used in assessments, although commodity magnitudes varied widely. Less than half of assessments included visual supports to aid comprehension of choice options. Effects of assessment parameters on delay discounting were largely unexplored. Future directions for research include identifying limits regarding for whom hypothetical money choice assessments produce interpretable and valid outcomes, as well as alternative assessment approaches or adaptations for children who may have difficulty understanding hypothetical constructs, money, delays, or some combination thereof.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


Kanji Writing Acquisition Through Sequential Stimulus Pairing in Japanese Students with Writing Difficulties

Abstract

In Japan, both typically developing students and students with developmental disabilities often exhibit difficulties with Kanji (Japanese ideogram) writing. These students sometimes demonstrate mirror writing (retrography), suggesting that they have difficulty in locating the parts of Kanji words rather than in writing itself. We examined whether five students with writing difficulties could learn and maintain the stimulus relations among Kanji words, spoken sounds, and corresponding pictures required for writing skills by using two types of pairing procedures: sequential stimulus pairing (SSP) and stimulus pairing (SP). In the SSP procedure, one of the two parts of a Kanji word was presented on the one side of a display, and the other part was sequentially presented on the other side, prior to presentation of the whole Kanji word. In the SP procedure, the whole Kanji word and its spoken sound were presented first, followed by its corresponding picture. The effects of training, as measured by writing performance and the number of training blocks to meet a mastery criterion, were evaluated by means of binominal tests and analysis of variance. The results showed that all students learned to correctly write Kanji words using both procedures, although the SSP procedure required fewer training blocks and enabled students to maintain their knowledge longer. These results suggest that presenting the parts of a stimulus sequentially in their correct spatial location made it easier to observe the Kanji stimuli and might therefore facilitate the acquisition of Kanji writing skills.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


Exploring Differential Trial-Type Effects and the Impact of a Read-Aloud Procedure on Deictic Relational Responding on the IRAP

Abstract

Under the rubric of Relational Frame Theory (RFT), researchers have investigated the role of deictic relational responding in the analysis of self in relation to others, place, and time, primarily through the use of an extended developmental protocol (Barnes-Holmes, 2001). In a move toward extending methodologies for studying deictic relational responding, more recent research has employed the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) to measure deictic relational responding regarding I versus OTHER (Barbero-Rubio et al. in The Psychological Record, 66, 243–252, 2016). The initial purpose of the current study was to systematically replicate and extend this research. This extension involved the inclusion of a control condition in which no responding to self was involved, only responding to others. The results from Experiment 1 yielded significant IRAP effects for two of the four trial-types in both the deictic and control IRAPs. A second experiment involved a novel method for collecting IRAP data (a read-aloud procedure), which had been shown to yield significant effects for all four trial-types, and four significant effects were indeed recorded for both deictic and control IRAPs. Based on the current findings, a model is presented that seeks to explain the differential trial-type effects that are observed across the different IRAPs and the impact of the read-aloud procedure.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


Acquisition of Complex Conditional Discriminations in a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Abstract

Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder have been reported to demonstrate stimulus overselectivity or restricted stimulus control (i.e., failure to respond to all critical elements of complex stimuli). This potential may have a detrimental impact on the acquisition of academic skills for these individuals if the stimuli in question contain multiple controlling elements. The current study presents a number of methodologies by which attention to, and the subsequent control by, multiple elements of a complex stimulus was demonstrated. The participant in this study was a 10-year-old girl diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. She was taught to select both printed word and picture comparisons, in the presence of complex sample stimuli comprised of visual and auditory elements, via an errorless learning protocol. Specifically, sample stimuli included manual American Sign Language (ASL) signs and the name of the sign. Following training, tests conducted in the absence of programed feedback verified accurate control by each sample element, as well as emergent stimulus-stimulus relations. No evidence of stimulus overselectivity was demonstrated during posttests. This study demonstrated an efficient methodology for forming stimulus classes through complex conditional discrimination training.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm