Video Modeling Training Effects on Types of Attention Delivered by Educational Care-Providers

Abstract

We evaluated the effects of abbreviated (i.e., one-session) video modeling on delivery of student-preferred attention by educational care-providers. The video depicted a novel care-provider interacting with and delivering attention to the student. Within a concurrent multiple baseline design, video modeling increased delivery of the targeted attention for all participants as well as their delivery of another type of attention that was not trained although these effects were variable within and between care-providers. We discuss the clinical and training implications from these findings.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Teaching On-Task Rollerblading and Ice-Skating to a Child with Autism

Abstract

The present study used a multi-component intervention package to teach on-task rollerblading and ice-skating to a boy with autism. Intervention consisted of response prompts, stimulus prompts, multiple-exemplar training, and a conditioned reinforcement system. The participant learned to remain on-task while rollerblading in a circular route marked by cones for up to 26 min. Both stimulus and response generalization of skating were demonstrated in a variety of non-training settings, including ice-skating at a rink.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Evaluation of Practice Trials to Increase Self-Drinking in a Child with a Feeding Disorder

Abstract

Self-drinking is an important skill for children to acquire as they transition from infancy to early childhood; however, the literature is limited (e.g., Collins, Gast, Wolery, Holcombe, & Leatherby, 1991; Peterson, Volkert, & Zeleny, 2015). We manipulated the consequences associated with self-drinking relative to those associated with being fed along the dimension of response effort. Results demonstrated that self-drinking increased when the child could either choose to self-feed one drink or be fed one drink and 5 practice trials with an empty cup.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


The Impact of Stimulus Presentation and Size on Preference

Abstract

The impact of stimulus size and presentation on choice during a preference assessment was investigated using a modified multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) technique. Stimuli were either presented with a uniform magnitude, as determined by mass, or in a manner consistent with caregiver report of reinforcer consumption. While both assessment procedures identified the same top three preferred items in three out of five cases, greater variability in the preference rank of less preferred items was observed between assessments.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm



Effects of Reinforcer Magnitude and Quality on Preference for Response-Reinforcer Arrangements in Young Children with Autism

Abstract

The present study evaluated the effects of reinforcer magnitude and quality on preference for continuous and discontinuous arrangements. Two preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participated in the study. Both participants initially preferred a discontinuous arrangement when choice options included the same quality and magnitude reinforcers; however, magnitude and quality manipulations resulted in a change in preference for continuous arrangements.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


An Abbreviated Evaluation of the Efficiency of Listener and Tact Instruction for Children with Autism

Abstract

We assessed the efficiency of tact and listener training for eight participants with autism spectrum disorder. Tact and listener probes were conducted in baseline for all target sets, and then tact training was initiated with one and listener training with another. Following mastery of one set, tact and listener probes were conducted with only the sets assigned to the same modality of training (i.e., sets 1, 3, and 5 for tact; sets 2, 4, and 6 for listener). Training and probes were repeated for all sets. The measures of efficiency included the number of skills mastered through direct training, the number of skills that emerged without training, the number of trials-to-criterion, and maintenance of skills. Clinical programming based on each participant’s results is discussed. For six participants, tact training was more efficient than listener training across multiple measures. For the remaining two participants, tact training and listener training were considered equivalent.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Predicting the Effects of Interventions: A Tutorial on the Disequilibrium Model

Abstract

The disequilibrium approach to reinforcement and punishment, derived from the probability-differential hypothesis and response deprivation hypothesis, provides a number of potentially useful mathematical models for practitioners. The disequilibrium approach and its accompanying models have proven effective in the prediction and control of behavior, yet they have not been fully espoused and integrated into clinical practice. The purpose of this tutorial is to detail the disequilibrium approach and adapt its mathematical models for use as a tool in applied settings. The disequilibrium models specify how to arrange contingencies and predict the effects of those contingencies. We aggregate these models, and provide them as a single tool, in the form of a Microsoft Excel® spreadsheet that calculates the direction and magnitude of behavior change based on baseline measures and a practitioner’s choice of intervention parameters. How practitioners take baseline measures and select intervention parameters in accordance with disequilibrium models is explicated. The proposed tool can be accessed and downloaded for use at https://osf.io/knf7x/.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Normative Emotional Responses to Behavior Analysis Jargon or How Not to Use Words to Win Friends and Influence People

Abstract

It has been suggested that non-experts regard the jargon of behavior analysis as abrasive, harsh, and unpleasant. If this is true, excessive reliance on jargon could interfere with the dissemination of effective services. To address this often discussed but rarely studied issue, we consulted a large, public domain list of English words that have been rated by members of the general public for the emotional reactions they evoke. Selected words that behavior analysts use as technical terms were compared to selected words that are commonly used to discuss general science, general clinical work, and behavioral assessment. There was a tendency for behavior analysis terms to register as more unpleasant than other kinds of professional terms and also as more unpleasant than English words generally. We suggest possible reasons for this finding, discuss its relevance to the challenge of deciding how to communicate with consumers who do not yet understand or value behavior analysis, and advocate for systematic research to guide the marketing of behavior analysis.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Concerns About the Registered Behavior Technician™ in Relation to Effective Autism Intervention

Abstract

In 2014, the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB®) initiated a program for credentialing behavior technicians. The new credential, Registered Behavior Technician™ (RBT®), is for providers of behavioral intervention to a wide range of individuals with mental health needs and developmental delays, including individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The RBT® would represent the entry-level position within the range of the BACB® credentials. Despite the increasing acceptance of this newest level of credential from the behavioral community, the authors of this paper have substantial concerns with the RBT® credential as it relates to the delivery of intervention to individuals diagnosed with ASD. The purpose of this paper is to detail these concerns and propose remedies that would ensure that individuals diagnosed with ASD receive effective behavioral intervention.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


The Effects of an Auditory Matching iPad App on Three Preschoolers’ Echoic and Listener Responses

Abstract

We investigated the effects of an auditory match-to-sample protocol on three preschoolers’ accurate echoics to 100 English words and advanced listener responses. The protocol was presented by using an iPad app Sounds the same: an app to target listening and speaking clearly. We used a combination of a multiple probe design (for echoic responses) and a delayed multiple probe design (for advanced listener literacy responses) with a time-lagged baseline across participants to test the effectiveness of the protocol. The three participants ranged from 4 to 5 years old and were all diagnosed as preschoolers with disabilities. They were taught to discriminate between positive and negative exemplars of progressively more difficult sounds, words, and phases by matching the sample stimulus to the matching exemplar. Our data show that the mastery of the intervention resulted in increases in the accuracy of the participants’ articulation of their echoics, as well as their advanced listener repertoires as measured by the responses to spoken directions in the presence of visual distractors.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Acquisition and Generalization of Complex Empathetic Responses Among Children with Autism

Abstract

Empathy can be defined as a social interaction skill that consists of four components: (1) a statement voiced in the (2) appropriate intonation, accompanied by a (3) facial expression and (4) gesture that correspond to the affect of another individual. A multiple-baseline across response categories experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a prompt sequence (video modeling, in vivo modeling, manual and verbal prompting) and reinforcement to increase the frequency of complex empathetic responding by four children with autism. The number of complex empathetic responses increased systematically with the successive introduction of the treatment package. Additionally, generalization was demonstrated to untaught stimuli and a novel adult. Responding maintained over time to varying degrees for all participants. The data illustrate that children with autism can be taught using modeling, prompting, and reinforcement to discriminate between categories of affective stimuli and differentially respond with complex empathetic responses.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Ethical Considerations for Interdisciplinary Collaboration with Prescribing Professionals

Abstract

Behavior analysts often work as part of an interdisciplinary team, and different team members may prescribe different interventions for a single client. One such intervention that is commonly encountered is a change in medication. Changes in medication regimens have the potential to alter behavior in a number of ways. As such, it is important for all team members to be aware of every intervention and to consider how different interventions may interact with each other. These facts make regular and clear communication among team members vital for treatment success. While working as part of an interdisciplinary team, behavior analysts must abide by their ethics code, which sometimes means advocating for their client with the rest of the team. This article will review some possible implications of medicinal interventions, potential ethical issues that can arise, and a case study from the authors’ experience. Finally, the authors propose a decision-making tree that can aid in determining the best course of action when a team member proposes an intervention in addition to, or concurrent with, interventions proposed by the behavior analyst.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Towards a Meaningful Analysis of Behavior Analyst Preparation Programs

Abstract

Numerous universities and colleges offer coursework approved by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Despite uniform requirements for approval, many differences exist among programs. To provide the field of behavior analysis with information about these differences, we conducted an initial analysis of programmatic variables and their relationship to pass rates on the Board Certified Behavior Analyst examination.

  • Given the variety of preparation programs currently approved by the certification board, behavior analysts from different programs will likely differ with regard to their training and experiences.

  • It is imperative that graduates from programs preparing behavior analysts are passing the examination to become board certified to fill specified jobs.

  • Statistically significant variables associated with increased examination pass rates for programs include on-campus course delivery and accreditation by the Association for Behavior Analysis International.

  • Variables lacking statistical significance with regard to impact on examination pass rates include the provision of supervision experience and the number of individuals from a program sitting for an exam.


Tue, 30 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Improving Pre-Service Teachers’ Performance Skills Through Behavioral Skills Training

Abstract

In higher education, instruction that incorporates effective performance skills training is vital to equipping pre-service teachers with the tools they will use to educate children. This study evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on performance of evidence-based practices by undergraduate pre-service special education teachers. A pre–post design was used to evaluate performance during role-play. BST sessions produced higher levels of correct performance than baseline measures across all seven participants. We discuss limitations of these results with suggestions for future research, along with recommendations for incorporating BST into university settings.


Mon, 29 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Sentence Reading Comprehension by Means of Training in Segment-Unit Reading for Japanese Children with Intellectual Disabilities

Abstract

Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) often have difficulty in sentence reading and comprehension. Previous studies have shown that training in segment-unit reading (SUR) facilitates the acquisition of sentence reading comprehension skills for Japanese students with ID. However, it remains unknown whether SUR training is also effective for individuals unable to read sentences and can generalize to untrained sentences. In this study, we examined the improvement and generalization of sentence reading accuracy and comprehension for two children with ID through SUR training with listening comprehensible sentences. During training, the segments were sequentially presented in their correct spatial locations, and participants read them aloud. After the training, participants’ reading accuracy and comprehension improved for both trained and untrained sentences. The results suggest that presenting the components of stimuli sequentially in their correct spatial locations is key to facilitating the development of sentence reading accuracy and comprehension for individuals with ID.


Mon, 29 May 2017, 5:00 pm


The Virginia Applied Behavior Analysis Consortium: Preparing Behavior Analysts Using a Collaborative Model

Abstract

The development and the evolution of the Virginia Applied Behavior Analysis Consortium, a collaborative project between four institutions of higher education in the state of Virginia, are described. The main goal of the program is to address the shortage of certified behavior analysts by preparing special education teachers and autism specialists to implement effective behavior-analytic interventions in natural environments. In this article, we briefly discuss the history and the purpose of the program, its components, the evolution of the program, the advantages and outcomes of a collaborative model, and future directions for improvement.


Wed, 24 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Using Video to Bridge the Gap Between Problem Behavior and a Delayed Time-out Procedure

Abstract

Treatment plans focused on problem behavior often include punishment contingencies to decrease problem behavior. Immediate punishers are typically more effective than delayed punishers, but immediate delivery of a punisher is not always possible. Strategies need to be developed to increase the suppressive effects of delayed punishers. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of a treatment package involving replaying a video recording of problem behavior immediately before delivering a 15 min delayed time-out. This treatment package may prove to be an accessible and inexpensive strategy when using delayed punishers.


Mon, 22 May 2017, 5:00 pm


A Response to Papatola and Lustig’s Paper on Navigating a Managed Care Peer Review: Guidance for Clinicians Using Applied Behavior Analysis in the Treatment of Children on the Autism Spectrum

Abstract

In their 2016 article, “Navigating a Managed Care Peer Review: Guidance for Clinicians Using Applied Behavior Analysis [ABA] in the Treatment of Children on the Autism Spectrum,” Papatola and Lustig provide an overview of the managed care process, discuss the medical necessity of ABA, and offer guidance to clinicians on how to navigate the managed care peer review process. Given that the authors are employed by a large international health insurance carrier and conduct peer reviews on behalf of that organization, this response seeks to provide guidance from both the clinical and public policy perspectives that reflect best practices in the field of autism treatment. This response is not written with the intention of providing or replacing legal advice; rather, this paper offers health care providers of ABA an essential understanding of some of the laws that govern and support their efforts to secure medically necessary treatment and the mechanisms in place with which to challenge decisions by managed care organizations, health plans, and health insurance issuers that may be contrary to best practices. Finally, suggestions are offered on how to navigate a peer review to ensure optimal outcomes and, when necessary, to lay the groundwork to overturn a funding source decision that does not reflect best practices or the standard of care in ABA-based autism treatment.


Sun, 21 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Measuring Adherence to a Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention: Is Program Adherence Related to Excessive Gestational Weight Gain?

Abstract

To identify adherence required to achieve target health outcome(s) in nutrition and/or exercise interventions, a measurement tool that tracks objective and self-reported measures of adherence is necessary. The purpose of this study was to design an adherence measurement tool and test it retrospectively on the Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP; Ruchat et al., Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 44(8), 1419–1426, 2012; Mottola et al., Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(2), 265–272, 2010), designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG). The tool was based on the goals of the NELIP and included a grading system for each behavior (exercise and nutrition). It was used to determine whether adherence scores could differentiate excessive versus acceptable weight gain during pregnancy across pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) categories. Results showed irrespective of pre-pregnancy BMI, women with acceptable weight gain had significantly higher adherence (p 

Tue, 16 May 2017, 5:00 pm