Using PowerPoint 2016 to Create Individualized Matching to Sample Sessions

Abstract

Discrete-trial-training procedures, particularly matching to sample (MTS), are often used to teach children with autism and/or intellectual disabilities. An example is touching a picture that corresponds to a spoken word. When conducted in a “tabletop” manner, the teacher must arrange several pictures on a table, provide the spoken word, and present response consequences, all while maintaining procedural integrity and collecting data. Using computer programs can greatly reduce the burden on practitioners, but many do not have the access, funding, or time to use complex and expensive software. This report serves as a guide to making MTS tasks that have many of the benefits of computerization using Microsoft® PowerPoint™ 2016, a program that many practitioners have basic knowledge of, and access to. Past papers have described the use of PowerPoint™ for whole classroom instruction. This report expands the use of PowerPoint™ to present individualized instruction that detects child responses and presents consequences based on those responses.


Sun, 1 Jul 2018, 5:00 pm


Integrating Phase Change Lines and Labels into Graphs in Microsoft Excel®

Abstract

Creating phase change lines and their corresponding labels in Microsoft Excel® remains a difficulty for many behavior analysts who want these display features to be integrated into the graph itself. Previous methods designed to address this issue have had limited utility across the types of data sets commonly analyzed by behavior analysts. The purpose of this article is to provide a fully functional method for integrating phase change lines and labels into Microsoft Excel® line graphs. This method is a combination of previous recommendations and allows for easy integration of new data and exportation of graphical displays to other software programs (e.g., Microsoft Word® and PowerPoint®).


Tue, 12 Jun 2018, 5:00 pm


Effects of Presession Pairing on Preference for Therapeutic Conditions and Challenging Behavior

Abstract

The current study examined child preference for presession therapeutic conditions. A 4-year-old female diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was exposed to three conditions in a concurrent-chains arrangement: presession pairing (PSP) prior to the onset of discrete-trial instruction (DTI), free play (FP) prior to DTI, or immediate onset of DTI. Initial link selections in the concurrent-chains arrangement suggested a relative preference for the PSP condition across multiple therapists. Negative vocalizations decreased across all conditions following implementation of the concurrent-chains arrangement with no differentiation between therapeutic conditions.


Tue, 12 Jun 2018, 5:00 pm


Behavior-Analytic Approaches to Working with People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities who Develop Dementia: a Review of the Literature

Abstract

Behavior analysis has made contributions in the development of evidence-based interventions for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), and there is a growing evidence base for behavior-analytic interventions for older adults with dementia. As there is an increased number of adults with IDD living to old age, and an increased prevalence of comorbid dementia in people with IDD, a review of the behavior-analytic contributions with this population is warranted. We searched Web of Science and PsycInfo and manually reviewed the last 20 years of five behavioral journals. Six behavior-analytic studies with people with IDD and dementia were identified, and all but one were published outside of core behavior-analytic journals. These articles were analyzed in terms of Baer, Wolf, and Risley’s (Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91–97, 1968) seven dimensions of applied behavior analysis (ABA). The possible explanations and implications of these findings are discussed with consideration of the unique features of a comorbid diagnosis of IDD and dementia that may make it appropriate for increased focus in behavior-analytic research and practice.


Tue, 12 Jun 2018, 5:00 pm


Evaluation of Computer-Based Training to Teach Adults Visual Analysis Skills of Baseline-Treatment Graphs

Abstract

The primary method of data analysis in applied behavior analysis is visual analysis. However, few investigations to date have taught the skills necessary for accurate visual analysis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate computer-based training on the visual analysis skills of adults with no prior experience. Visual analysis was taught with interactive computer-based training that included written instructions and opportunities for practice with textual feedback. Generalization of participant skills from simulated to handwritten and authentic data graphs was programmed for and assessed during the study. A multiple-baseline design was used across visual analysis properties (i.e., variability, level, and trend), with continuous overall intervention effect generalization probes, replicated across 4 participants to evaluate computer-based training for accurate visual analysis of A-B graphs. The results showed that all participants accurately visually analyzed A-B graphs following the computer-based training for variability, level, trend, and overall intervention effect. These visual analysis skills generalized to handwritten and authentic data graphs and maintained approximately 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1 month following mastery of each property for all participants. Implications of the results suggest that computer-based training improved accurate visual analysis skills for adults with no prior experience.


Tue, 12 Jun 2018, 5:00 pm


Using a Behavioral Intervention to Improve Performance of a Women’s College Lacrosse Team

Abstract

This study examined the use of prompting and an interdependent group negative reinforcement contingency to improve performance of 12 collegiate women’s lacrosse players. The team coaches wanted players to “name passes,” defined as saying the name of a player who should catch the ball at least 1 s before the catch. The intervention was evaluated using an A-B-A-B design, and results indicated that prompting and negative reinforcement (removing sprints at the end of practice for desired performance) were successful for improving names on passes. Players rated the intervention as acceptable, but only 7 out of 12 thought it should continue to be used in future practices.


Mon, 11 Jun 2018, 5:00 pm


Letter to the Editor: An Autism Parent’s Response to Papatola and Lustig’s Paper on Navigating a Managed Care Peer Review in Behavior Analysis in Practice

Abstract

An autism parent disputes the authors’ premise that the role of the BCBA is to “transition treatment to parents.” Parents cannot simply “take over” all the advanced degrees, thousands of hours of coursework practicum and exams, or depth and breadth of scientific knowledge required to earn a BCBA any more than we can (or should) “take over” our kids’ pediatric care or prescribe their meds. Papatola and Lustig’s employer, Cigna Behavioral Health, recently made “transition treatment to parents” a criterion of medical necessity for ABA.


Mon, 4 Jun 2018, 5:00 pm


Individualizing Intervention to Teach Joint Attention, Requesting, and Social Referencing to Children with Autism

Abstract

Social communication skills such as joint attention (JA), requesting, and social referencing (SR) are deficits in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Shifting gaze is a common response across these skills. In many studies, children respond variably to intervention, resulting in modifications to planned intervention procedures. In this study, we attempted to replicate the procedures of Krstovska-Guerrero and Jones (Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities 28; 289–316, 2016) and Muzammal and Jones (Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities 29; 203–221, 2017) to teach JA, requesting, and SR. In general, intervention procedures consisting of prompting and reinforcement were effective in teaching requesting, SR, and JA skills to children with ASD. However, not all children acquired each skill, and all children required individualized procedures to acquire some skills. We report the process of deciding how to modify intervention and discuss considerations for practitioners when planning intervention that may improve children’s performance.


Mon, 4 Jun 2018, 5:00 pm


Efficiency Is Everything: Promoting Efficient Practice by Harnessing Derived Stimulus Relations

Abstract

A pivotal skill of practice involves engineering emergent learning. Toward this end, graduate training in applied behavior analysis must emphasize concepts of and research on stimulus relations in order for practitioners to develop these skills.


Sun, 3 Jun 2018, 5:00 pm


Correction to: Effects of a Contingency for Quiz Accuracy on Exam Scores

Abstract

This article was updated with the correct version of Figure 1. Due to an error in production, an older version of Figure 1 was used; Springer regrets the error.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


The Use of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services to Assess and Improve the Job Performance of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

Abstract

The Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services (PDC-HS) is an informant-based tool designed to identify the variables responsible for performance problems. To date, the PDC-HS has not been examined with individuals with intellectual disabilities. In the current study, two supervisors with intellectual disabilities completed the PDC-HS to assess the productivity of two supervisees with disabilities who performed a pricing task in a thrift store. The PDC-HS suggested that performance deficits were due to a lack of training; a PDC-HS-indicated intervention was effective to increase accurate pricing.

• The PDC-HS is an informant-based tool designed to identify the variables responsible for employee performance problems in human service settings.

• The PDC-HS can be completed by some individuals with intellectual disabilities in a supervisory position to identify the variables responsible for problematic job performance among their supervisees.

• A PDC-HS indicated intervention was demonstrated to be effective to improve the job performance of individuals with disabilities.

• The PDC-HS may be a useful tool to support performance improvement and job maintenance among individuals with intellectual disabilities.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


Participation of Women in Behavior Analysis Research: Some Recent and Relevant Data

Abstract

An examination of article authorship and editorial board membership for 7 behavior–analytic journals from 2014 to 2017 revealed that, compared to findings from prior years, women’s participation has increased substantially. This finding is heartening and shows the value of persistent efforts to ensure that everyone has the opportunity to succeed in, and be served by, behavior analysis.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


Application of a Brief Incentive Treatment for Cigarette Smoking

Abstract

The application of financial incentives has proved to be a gainful treatment for cigarette smoking, yet the cost of delivering financial incentives has been a barrier to its widespread implementation. The goal of the present study is to test this treatment (with counseling) in a brief 3-week format, thereby reducing the cost. Results indicated that for one participant incentives were effective at promoting long-term abstinence from cigarette smoking. Though more research is needed, this treatment appears to be effective and can be delivered at a relatively low cost.

• Financial incentives can be utilized to promote abstinence from cigarette smoking.

• Regular monitoring of biomarkers of cigarette smoking is required in this treatment.

• One low-cost feature of this treatment is that a participant that does not abstain from smoking does not receive incentives, as was the case for one participant in this study.

• Abstinence is achieved through a combination of skill-training and reinforcing the absence cigarette smoking (differential reinforcement of other behavior; DRO).


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


Effects of a Contingency for Quiz Accuracy on Exam Scores

Abstract

Completing frequent quizzes can improve exam scores; however, there is a lack of research on variables that influence quiz accuracy and whether there is an effect on exam scores. This study evaluated the effects of a contingency for quiz accuracy on quiz accuracy and exam performance. Eighty-one students enrolled in an introductory Learning course participated. For each class meeting and its related readings, the instructor assigned an online quiz due just before each class. During the no-contingency condition, the instructor assigned quizzes, but quiz accuracy did not result in points toward the final grade. During the accuracy-contingency condition, students earned points based on quiz accuracy. In a reversal design, the accuracy-contingency increased quiz accuracy and exam scores relative to no-contingency. Although many students benefited from the contingency, low-performing students were least likely to show a meaningful improvement in exam scores.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


Effects of Activation of Preferred Stimulus on Tummy Time Behavior of an Infant with Down Syndrome and Associated Hypotonia

Abstract

Infants with Down syndrome often have low muscle tone (hypotonia) and need activities designed to increase muscle tone (e.g., tummy time). However, no study has examined the effects of strategies designed to increase of tummy time for this population. The current study investigated activation of a preferred toy as a strategy to increase head lifting during tummy time for a 5-month-old with Down syndrome and associated hypotonia. The intervention was successful and is a promising early strategy for addressing hypotonia in infants with Down syndrome.

• Infants with Down syndrome often have associated hypotonia, or poor muscle tone.

• “Tummy time” is widely described as an important activity for motor development in early infancy.

• Activating preferred stimuli during tummy time increased head lifting in an infant with Down syndrome and hypotonia.

• Activation of a preferred stimulus is an easy intervention that parents can use to enhance tummy time.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


An Approach to Cleanliness Training to Support Bathroom Hygiene among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Abstract

The current investigation extends the findings of previous studies on the effects of simulation and correspondence training for teaching hygiene skills. Two male participants between the ages of 5 and 6 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were taught hygiene skills in a clinic setting. Both participants acquired the hygiene routine. Following instruction, the participants’ parents conducted probe sessions to assess generalization to the home environment. Generalization occurred for both participants. Moreover, a 6-month follow-up probe confirmed the maintenance of skills. This article provides utility to practitioners by providing a methodology for teaching hygiene after a bowel movement, demonstrating the generalization of skills from the clinic to the home, and providing a model for parent involvement.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm



A Pilot Investigation of Individual and Dyad Instructional Arrangements

Abstract

An essential goal for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is to reach maximal independence on a variety of tasks that facilitate academic and vocational engagement and community integration. One-to-one instructional arrangements do not adequately prepare individuals with autism to function within various group contexts and limit opportunities for positive social interactions with one or more peers. Furthermore, group instructional formats have multiple benefits, including potentially increased instructional time and additional learning opportunities. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the acquisition and maintenance of verbal behavior targets in individual and dyad instruction, as well as to compare levels of engagement across these instructional arrangements. Results suggest that three of the four participants acquired more targets during individual instruction, and three of the four participants maintained more targets within individual instruction. In addition, three of the four participants spent less time in instruction and more time on break during dyad instruction. These findings demonstrate the diversity of outcomes for dyad instruction for people with ASD. Directions for future research and suggestions for clinical implementation are provided.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


How to Identify Ethical Practices in Organizations Prior to Employment

Abstract

Behavior analysts likely can evaluate multiple organizations prior to accepting a job due to recent increases in the number of organizations providing ABA services. We argue that evaluating the ethical values of an organization is paramount during the job search process. We provide strategies for evaluating the ethical values of an organization prior to employment and describe considerations from the pre-application process through contract negotiations. Ultimately, we add to the growing body of literature that provides guidance for common problems behavior analysts may face over the course of their careers.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm


The Effects of a Video-Enhanced Schedule on Exercise Behavior

Abstract

Research focusing on physical exercise and individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited. Activity- and video-enhanced schedules have successfully increased leisure, academic, social, and daily living skills for individuals with ASD and may be effective in increasing exercise. We evaluated the effects of a video-enhanced schedule presented on an iPad® on exercise behavior with adolescents with ASD using a multiple probe across participants design. Specifically, the effects of a video-enhanced exercise schedule with graduated guidance on independent schedule-following behavior and on-task behavior was evaluated. Participants acquired a video-enhanced exercise schedule and remained on task; we also successfully faded proximity from the participant. The skills generalized to a novel exercise and setting and maintained over time. The procedures were reported to be socially acceptable by stakeholders. Individuals with ASD are more likely to live sedentary lifestyles, have poor diets and sleep, and be overweight. We evaluated the effects of a video-enhanced exercise schedule presented on an iPad® with individuals with ASD on independent schedule following behavior and on-task behavior. We also attempted to fade proximity from an instructor and assessed generalization, maintenance, and social validity. Individuals quickly acquired the exercise schedule and remained on task. Distance from an instructor was increased, skills generalized to novel exercises and locations and maintained over time, and the procedures and outcomes were reported favorable by stakeholders. Practitioners should continue to evaluate the effects of video-enhanced schedules on exercise behavior and determine how to fade the videos.


Thu, 31 May 2018, 5:00 pm