Teaching Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Community-Based Navigation Skills to Take Public Transportation

Abstract

Facilitating the use of public transportation enhances opportunities for independent living and competitive, community-based employment for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Four young adults with IDD were taught through total-task chaining to use the Google Maps application, a self-prompting, visual navigation system, to take the bus to locations around a college campus and the community. Three of four participants learned to use Google Maps to independently navigate public transportation. Google Maps may be helpful in supporting independent travel, highlighting the importance of future research in teaching navigation skills.

  • Learning to independently use public transportation increases access to autonomous activities, such as opportunities to work and to attend postsecondary education programs on large college campuses.

  • Individuals with IDD can be taught through chaining procedures to use the Google Maps application to navigate public transportation.

  • Mobile map applications are an effective and functional modern tool that can be used to teach community navigation.


Sun, 12 Nov 2017, 4:00 pm


Teacher-Conducted, Latency-Based Functional Analysis as Basis for Individualized Levels System in a Classroom Setting

Abstract

Latency-based functional analysis (FA) may be appropriate when stakeholders are concerned with safety or feasibility. We trained a first-year special education teacher to collect data while she implemented a latency-based FA and validated a function-based intervention. Treatment effects were generalized across paraeducators and were maintained during a 1-month follow-up.


Tue, 5 Sep 2017, 5:00 pm


An Evaluation of Differential Observing Responses During Receptive Label Training

Abstract

The current study compared the use of a differential observing response (DOR) during receptive label training to a condition without the DOR. We extended the research on DORs used during receptive label training by using them with progressive prompt delay procedures and assessing responding following mastery without the DOR. Results indicated that both participants performed better in the DOR condition during the first comparison, but results were less clear in the second comparison.


Thu, 31 Aug 2017, 5:00 pm


An Evaluation of Instructive Feedback to Teach Play Behavior to a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Abstract

Instructive feedback is used to expose learners to secondary targets during skill acquisition programs (Reichow & Wolery, in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 327–340, 2011; Werts, Wolery, Gast, & Holcombe, in Journal of Behavioral Education, 5, 55–75, 1995). Although unrelated feedback may have clinical utility in practice, very little research has evaluated unrelated instructive feedback, particularly for promoting play behavior (Colozzi, Ward, & Crotty, in Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 43, 226–248, 2008). The purpose of the study was to determine if play emerged after embedding instructive feedback during the consequence portion of discrete trial training to teach tacts. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare tact training with and without instructive feedback for play behaviors. Instructive feedback resulted in the emergence of play behaviors during tabletop instruction and a play area of a classroom. We discuss the results in terms of clinical practice and future research.


Thu, 31 Aug 2017, 5:00 pm



An Evaluation of Lag Schedules of Reinforcement During Functional Communication Training: Effects on Varied Mand Responding and Challenging Behavior

Abstract

We evaluated the effects of lag schedules of reinforcement during functional communication training (FCT) on the varied use of mands and challenging behavior by two individuals diagnosed with autism. Specifically, we compared the effects of Lag 0 and Lag 1 schedules of reinforcement during FCT. The results showed that each participant exhibited increases in varied mand responding during FCT with the Lag 1 schedule of reinforcement relative to Lag 0; challenging behavior remained low during both FCT lag conditions relative to baseline. Results are discussed in terms of treatment implications relating to FCT and the potential prevention and/or mitigation of clinical relapse during challenges to treatment.


Thu, 31 Aug 2017, 5:00 pm


Improving Pre-Service Teachers’ Performance Skills Through Behavioral Skills Training

Abstract

In higher education, instruction that incorporates effective performance skills training is vital to equipping pre-service teachers with the tools they will use to educate children. This study evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on performance of evidence-based practices by undergraduate pre-service special education teachers. A pre–post design was used to evaluate performance during role-play. BST sessions produced higher levels of correct performance than baseline measures across all seven participants. We discuss limitations of these results with suggestions for future research, along with recommendations for incorporating BST into university settings.


Thu, 31 Aug 2017, 5:00 pm


Application of a Pyramidal Training Model on the Implementation of Trial-Based Functional Analysis: a Partial Replication

Abstract

We employed a pyramidal training model (PTM) to teach staff to correctly implement and collect data for trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) in simulated situations. First, we trained four behavioral consultants (BCs) in a group format, who each trained one behavior technician (BT) in an individual format. We utilized a non-concurrent multiple baseline design to evaluate the effect of the training. During generalization probes, participants implemented TBFA with a novel problem behavior. This study will contribute to the literature on teaching staff how to conduct TBFA. This study demonstrates the application of a two-level PTM. This study illustrates how agencies can utilize the Task Analysis Training Protocol within a PTM to train staff on implementation of TBFA.


Thu, 31 Aug 2017, 5:00 pm


Automating Phase Change Lines and Their Labels Using Microsoft Excel (R)

Abstract

Many researchers have rallied against drawn in graphical elements and offered ways to avoid them, especially regarding the insertion of phase change lines (Deochand, Costello, & Fuqua, 2015; Dubuque, 2015; Vanselow & Bourret, 2012). However, few have offered a solution to automating the phase labels, which are often utilized in behavior analytic graphical displays (Deochand et al., 2015). Despite the fact that Microsoft Excel® is extensively utilized by behavior analysts, solutions to resolve issues in our graphing practices are not always apparent or user-friendly. Considering the insertion of phase change lines and their labels constitute a repetitious and laborious endeavor, any minimization in the steps to accomplish these graphical elements could offer substantial time-savings to the field. The purpose of this report is to provide an updated way (and templates in the supplemental materials) to add phase change lines with their respective labels, which stay embedded to the graph when they are moved or updated.


Thu, 31 Aug 2017, 5:00 pm


Preliminary Evidence on the Efficacy of Mindfulness Combined with Traditional Classroom Management Strategies

Abstract

The current case study combined mindfulness-based strategies with a classroom behavior management treatment package, to assist teachers with managing 3rd grade student behaviors. Two teachers (Classroom teacher and Specials teacher) and six students within the same classroom were observed using a 5-min momentary time sampling procedure. A delayed multiple baseline across settings (e.g., Classroom teacher, Specials teacher) design was used to assess student behaviors across baseline (A), classroom behavior management treatment package (CBM) (B), CBM plus mindfulness (C), and CBM plus mindfulness and self-monitoring (D). Behavioral treatment alone increased on-task behaviors for four of six (66%) students compared to baseline; however, five of six (83%) students increased and sustained high rates of on-task behaviors when mindfulness exercises were added to the behavior analytic techniques. These preliminary results support the combination of mindfulness-based strategies with traditional behavior analytic interventions for increasing student on-task behaviors in classroom settings.


Thu, 31 Aug 2017, 5:00 pm


Utilizing PEAK Relational Training System to Teach Visual, Gustatory, and Auditory Relations to Adults with Developmental Disabilities

Abstract

Two multiple baseline designs were conducted across participants to determine if the promoting the emergence of advanced knowledge (PEAK) equivalence module was an effective tool in teaching adults with autism relationships between stimuli. More specifically, a transitivity program utilizing the gustatory sensory modality was implemented. Stimuli were selected and probed initially preceding the training. First, gustatory stimuli to a visual picture were trained. Then, a visual picture to a spoken word was trained. Finally, once mastery criterion was reached, each participant’s responding was tested to determine whether there were derived relations following training. Results showed that all three participants reached mastery criterion in training sessions and were able to derive new relations without direct training.


Thu, 31 Aug 2017, 5:00 pm


A Program Evaluation of Home and Center-Based Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorder

Abstract

The present study aimed to retrospectively compare the relative rates of mastery of exemplars for individuals with ASD (N = 313) who received home-based and center-based services. A between-group analysis found that participants mastered significantly more exemplars per hour when receiving center-based services than home-based services. Likewise, a paired-sample analysis found that participants who received both home and center-based services had mastered 100 % more per hour while at the center than at home. These analyses indicated that participants demonstrated higher rates of learning during treatment that was provided in a center setting than in the participant’s home.


Thu, 31 Aug 2017, 5:00 pm


Using Video to Bridge the Gap Between Problem Behavior and a Delayed Time-out Procedure

Abstract

Treatment plans focused on problem behavior often include punishment contingencies to decrease problem behavior. Immediate punishers are typically more effective than delayed punishers, but immediate delivery of a punisher is not always possible. Strategies need to be developed to increase the suppressive effects of delayed punishers. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of a treatment package involving replaying a video recording of problem behavior immediately before delivering a 15 min delayed time-out. This treatment package may prove to be an accessible and inexpensive strategy when using delayed punishers.


Thu, 31 Aug 2017, 5:00 pm


Are Brazilian Behavior Analysts Publishing Outside the Box? A Survey of General Science Media

Abstract

Recent studies have stressed the importance of disseminating behavior analysis to a more diverse audience and have provided ways to do so effectively. General science publications offer an attractive venue for communicating with a scientifically educated public. The present study examines behavior analysis research published in Science Today and Research Fapesp, monthly general science publications published by the Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science and São Paulo Research Foundation, respectively. Behavior analytic terms were searched in issues published from 2003 to 2014, along with psychoanalytic terms as a comparative measure. Only 13 behavior analysis articles were found, while psychoanalytic articles totaled 150. Six of the behavior analysis articles misconstrue fundamental concepts of behavior analysis. The study recommends that behavior analysis researchers extend the dissemination of their findings outside the box.


Thu, 31 Aug 2017, 5:00 pm


A Survey-Based Method to Evaluate Optimal Treatment Selection for Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior

Abstract

Geiger, Carr, and LeBlanc (2010) developed a decision-making model for escape-maintained problem behavior that could be used to guide the course of treatment selection. We used a digital survey to evaluate the model’s potential usefulness. We presented novice and expert practitioners’ written hypothetical scenarios and asked them to determine the optimal treatment in a given situation. Some participants were given the model, whereas others were instructed to use their best clinical judgment. Using logistic regression analyses, the general findings for our scenarios were the following: (a) experts without the aid of a decision model had better odds of selecting the optimal treatment than novices without the decision model, (b) experts with the decision model did not have greater odds of selecting optimal treatment than experts without the model, and (c) novices with the decision model did not have better odds of selecting the optimal treatment than novices without the decision model.


Thu, 31 Aug 2017, 5:00 pm


The Effects of Bug-in-Ear Coaching on Pre-Service Behavior Analysts’ Use of Functional Communication Training

Abstract

Behavior analysts play an important role in supporting the behavior and learning of young children with disabilities in natural settings. However, there is very little research related specifically to developing the skills and competencies needed by pre-service behavior analysts. This study examined the effects of “bug-in-ear” (BIE) coaching on pre-service behavior analysts’ implementation of functional communication training with pre-school children with autism in their classrooms. BIE coaching was associated with increases in the rate of functional communication training trials each intern initiated per session and in the fidelity with which interns implemented functional communication training. Adults created more intentional opportunities for children to communicate, and adults provided more systematic instruction around those opportunities.


Thu, 31 Aug 2017, 5:00 pm


Recommendations for Identifying Sleep Problems and Treatment Resources for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Abstract

Many young children experience sleep problems that may influence their daytime functioning. These sleep problems are especially prevalent in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, general recommendations for identifying and treating sleep problems in children with ASD are needed for behavior analysts to identify potential sleep problems and make empirically informed decisions regarding treatment options. The current paper seeks to provide behavior analysts, who work with children with ASD, with informative research on pediatric sleep problems, sleep measures, and options for behavioral sleep treatment.


Thu, 31 Aug 2017, 5:00 pm


The Use of Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Graph Analysis to Community Based Teachers

Abstract

In this study, the experimenter trained three teachers to implement data decision rules to detect when instructional changes should be made during the visual analysis of discrete-trial percentage graphs. The experimenter used a concurrent, multiple-baseline design across participants. The experimenter trained the teachers to follow decision-making rules using instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. Following intervention, participants increased the percentage of correct data-based decisions and decreased the percentage of errors.


Tue, 29 Aug 2017, 5:00 pm


Video Modeling Training Effects on Types of Attention Delivered by Educational Care-Providers

Abstract

We evaluated the effects of abbreviated (i.e., one-session) video modeling on delivery of student-preferred attention by educational care-providers. The video depicted a novel care-provider interacting with and delivering attention to the student. Within a concurrent multiple baseline design, video modeling increased delivery of the targeted attention for all participants as well as their delivery of another type of attention that was not trained although these effects were variable within and between care-providers. We discuss the clinical and training implications from these findings.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Teaching On-Task Rollerblading and Ice-Skating to a Child with Autism

Abstract

The present study used a multi-component intervention package to teach on-task rollerblading and ice-skating to a boy with autism. Intervention consisted of response prompts, stimulus prompts, multiple-exemplar training, and a conditioned reinforcement system. The participant learned to remain on-task while rollerblading in a circular route marked by cones for up to 26 min. Both stimulus and response generalization of skating were demonstrated in a variety of non-training settings, including ice-skating at a rink.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm