Can Collateral Behavior Account for Transitions in the Stimulus Control of Speech?

Abstract

The task of extending Skinner’s (1957) interpretation of verbal behavior includes accounting for the moment-to-moment changes in stimulus control as one speaks. A consideration of the behavior of the reader reminds us of the continuous evocative effect of verbal stimuli on readers, listeners, and speakers. Collateral discriminative responses to verbal stimuli, beyond mere echoic or textual behavior, are potential sources of control and must be included in any complete account of both verbal and nonverbal behavior.


Sun, 17 Sep 2017, 5:00 pm


Establishing Derived Equivalence Relations of Basic Geography Skills in Children with Autism

Abstract

The present study evaluated the efficacy of a stimulus-equivalence training procedure in teaching basic geography skills to two children with autism. The procedures were taken directly from a standardized training curriculum based in stimulus equivalence theory called Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Equivalence Module (PEAK-E). Results suggest that the procedures were efficacious in directly training several geographical relations, as well as promoting the derivation of several untrained relations for three countries and their corresponding continents. In addition, responding generalized from selecting countries on a tabletop paper map to selecting countries on an interactive touchscreen map.


Sun, 17 Sep 2017, 5:00 pm


A Preliminary Analysis of Procedures to Teach Children with Autism to Report Past Behavior

Abstract

Deficits in reporting past behavior may have implications for a child’s social development and safety. Behavioral interpretations of memory and research on do/say correspondence provide valuable strategies to teach reporting past behavior when deficits are observed. The current study examined procedures to teach accurate reporting of past behavior following a delay for two children diagnosed with autism. During baseline, both participants accurately reported past behavior when immediately probed. Neither participant emitted accurate reporting following a delay during end-of-day probes. Treatment procedures included prompting, reinforcement, and fading procedures designed to maintain stimulus control across the delay. Both participants demonstrated accurate reporting of past behavior on delayed probes, including when conducted by a caregiver.


Mon, 26 Jun 2017, 5:00 pm




Talk-Aloud Protocols during Conditional Discrimination Training and Equivalence Class Formation

Abstract

The primary focus of the present experiment was to study participants’ self-talk during conditional discrimination training and test for the emergence of conditional relations consistent with equivalence. Eighteen adult participants were exposed to either a Many-to-One (MTO) or a One-to-Many (OTM) training structure arranged as a 6-s delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) procedure. During training and testing, participants were asked to talk aloud. Each trial was divided into three time-windows for recording vocal responses. The first time-window was when the sample was presented, the second time-window was the delay following the offset of the sample stimulus until the onset of the comparisons, and the final time-window was when the comparison array was presented. Overall, participants in the OTM condition talked more than participants in the MTO condition. The participants exposed to MTO increased talking during the third time-window from last part of training to test more than the participants in the OTM condition. For 16 of the 18 participants, talking aloud was less than 55% in the second time-window (during the delay). Conversely, talking in the first and third time-windows were higher than 90% in both groups. Thus, it seems that talking is affected by the shift from training to testing to a greater degree when exposed to MTO than OTM. Furthermore, the data indicate that the participants did not need to talk aloud during the delay to respond correctly on DMTS trials.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Authorship Trends in The Analysis of Verbal Behavior : 1982–2016

Abstract

The Analysis of Verbal Behavior (TAVB) is the only journal focused on theoretical and empirical research in verbal behavior. An assessment of authorship trends can provide a critical perspective on practices in verbal behavior analysis (e.g., participation by non-US institutions, contributions by female authors). The present study examines authorship trends in all articles published in TAVB since its inception (between 1982 and 2016). All authors and their affiliations were listed and the first authors denoted as such. Authors were characterized as follows: prolificacy, new vs. frequent contributor status, number of co-authors, editor status, fellow status in a professional organization, and gender. Institutional affiliations were characterized as follows: academic vs. nonacademic institutions, prolificacy, and location (country). The review included 383 articles by 487 authors from 200 institutions. Our findings revealed areas in which TAVB is reaching maturity (e.g., author gender) and areas in which further action by contributors and editors is needed (e.g., international participation).


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


An annotated bibliography of verbal behavior articles published outside of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior: 2016

Abstract

An annotated bibliography is provided that summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior in 2016, the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Thirty-seven such articles were identified and annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Intraverbal Training for Individuals with Autism: The Current Status of Multiple Control

Abstract

Teaching complex intraverbal responding to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be challenging and often requires careful programming. Divergent and convergent multiple control are particularly important elements to incorporate into intraverbal training programs, as well as procedures to ensure responding is under control of both discriminative and conditional vocal verbal stimuli. The current study systematically reviewed research articles on intraverbal training methods for individuals with ASD published and available from 2005 to 2016. The purpose of the review was to assess the extent to which divergent and convergent control was incorporated into training and to determine whether systematic instruction ensured correct verbal conditional discriminations. Thirty-six studies met inclusion criteria and were included in this reviewed. A total of 5 studies taught intraverbal responding under divergent control and 21 taught responding under convergent control. Two studies sufficiently described procedures to ensure accurate verbal conditional discriminations across trials. The results highlight the need for additional research on systematic teaching procedures for complex intraverbal repertoires.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Teaching Problem Explanations Using Instructive Feedback

Abstract

Instructive feedback (IF) is a procedure in which extra information is presented to a participant during the consequence portion of instruction for other skills. Previous research has demonstrated that participants with intellectual disabilities may acquire a portion of non-targeted skills (secondary targets) without explicit instruction when extra information is presented. Previous research has demonstrated that IF has resulted in more efficient instruction for participants with disabilities as a whole. However, few studies have focused on participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Additionally, the measures of secondary target acquisition in past research have focused solely on discrete responses (e.g., one-word utterances). The current investigation extended the IF literature related to participants with ASD by including longer verbal responses as secondary targets and assessing maintenance for both primary and secondary targets. Across three participants, IF resulted in the acquisition of at least a portion of secondary targets without explicit teaching. For two participants, additional instruction was required before IF resulted in acquisition of secondary targets. Across all three participants, gains observed for both primary and secondary targets in intervention were maintained.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Function-Altering Effects of Rule Phrasing in the Modulation of Instructional Control

Abstract

This study evaluated the effects of four instructional variants on instruction following under changing reinforcement schedules using an operant task based on Hackenberg and Joker’s Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 62, 367–383 (1994) experimental preparation. Sixteen college-aged adults served as participants and were randomly assigned to one of four instruction conditions (directive, generic, non-directive, and control). Results suggest textual verbal behavior modulated instruction following. Specifically, directive and generic instructions produced greater levels of instructional control and relatively lower levels of schedule control compared to non-directive instructions. Thus, participants in the directive and generic groups responded in accordance with the instructions even when schedules of reinforcement favored deviation from the instructed pattern. In contrast, participants in the non-directive group responded toward the optimal pattern. In the control condition, participant responding was variable but toward the optimal pattern. Findings are interpreted within the framework of Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior and formulation of rule governance.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


An annotated bibliography of articles in the Journal of Speech and Language Pathology-Applied Behavior Analysis

Abstract

The open-source Journal of Speech and Language Pathology-Applied Behavior Analysis (JSLP-ABA) was published online from 2006 to 2010. We present an annotated bibliography of 80 articles published in the now-defunct journal with the aim of representing its scholarly content to readers of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. We hope this effort will stimulate discussion, research, and treatment applications with respect to disorders of speech, language, hearing, swallowing, and voice and that collaborative efforts may be fostered between the two professions represented by JSLP-ABA: speech-language pathology and applied behavior analysis.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


On the Social Validity of Behavior-Analytic Communication: a Call for Research and Description of One Method

Abstract

It has often been suggested that nonexperts find the communication of behavior analysts to be viscerally off-putting. We argue that this concern should be the focus of systematic research rather than mere discussion, and describe five studies that illustrate how publicly available lists of word-emotion ratings can be used to estimate the responses of general-audience listeners. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that some of the ways in which behavior analysts tend to discuss their discipline can be unpleasant, but also illustrate inter- and intraindividual variations in pleasantness. Although our methods are atypical for behavior-analytic research, they are appropriate to the topic and sufficient to suggest many directions for additional research through which a field that considers itself sophisticated in matters of verbal behavior might shed light on its own disciplinary communication challenges.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


An Assessment of Three Procedures to Teach Echoic Responding

Abstract

The research literature has revealed mixed outcomes on various procedures for increasing vocalizations and echoic responding in persons with disabilities (Miguel, Carr, & Michael The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 18, 3–13, 2002; Stock, Schulze, & Mirenda The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 24, 123–133, 2008). We examined the efficacy of an assessment procedure for identifying the most effective echoic teaching procedure to six students diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental delays. The assessment procedure included a within-participant comparison of vocal imitation training (VIT), stimulus–stimulus pairing (SSP), and a mand-model procedure (MM). A functional analysis of the responses was conducted to determine whether responding was functionally an echoic or a mand. The results indicated that the assessment was effective in identifying a teaching procedure for five out of the six participants and that responding was established under echoic control. These outcomes support the efficacy of this assessment procedure for identifying effective echoic teaching procedures.


Wed, 31 May 2017, 5:00 pm


Jack Michael’s Musings on the 60th Anniversary of Skinner’s Verbal Behavior

Abstract

When the B. F. Skinner Foundation reprinted Skinner’s Verbal Behavior in 1992, Jack Michael wrote one of its two forewords, a detailed outline of the book’s purpose and scope. On the 60th anniversary of the first publication (1957) of Verbal Behavior, Jack reflects on the book’s impact and its importance to the understanding of language from a behavioral perspective.


Mon, 3 Apr 2017, 5:00 pm



A Comparison of Prompting Strategies to Teach Intraverbals to an Adolescent with Down Syndrome

Abstract

Ingvarsson and Hollobaugh (2011) investigated tact- or echoic-to-intraverbal transfer of stimulus control to “wh” questions for three preschool-aged boys with autism. The current study was a systematic replication of this study with an adolescent girl with Down syndrome. A multielement design was used to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of picture or echoic prompts presented on an iPad or in vivo to teach “wh” questions. All prompt conditions were effective. Conclusions and recommendations for practice are presented.


Fri, 30 Sep 2016, 5:00 pm


Selection-Based Instruction with Touch-Screen Video and the Emergence of Exact, Recombinative, and Novel Topography-Based Responses to Interview Questions

Abstract

The purpose of the present experiment was to replicate and extend the literature on using selection-based instruction to teach responses to interview questions by (a) evaluating the emergence of recombinative (i.e., combinations of taught) and novel (i.e., untaught) topography-based intraverbal responses, in addition to exact repetitions of taught responses, (b) providing a measure of social validity for the emergent response subtypes, and (c) including a touch-screen video interviewing component. Participants were two young adult males with a learning disability who attended a local vocational development center. Increases in accurate intraverbal responding and decreases in inaccurate responding across most interview questions were observed in both participants at posttest. Increases in the number of accurate recombinative responses were observed for both participants, and increases in accurate exact responses were observed for one participant. One accurate novel response was observed at posttest for each participant. Results suggest that selection-based instruction can generate appropriate topography-based responses that sound unscripted and the addition of a video component was viable.


Fri, 30 Sep 2016, 5:00 pm


Teaching Children with Autism to Follow Rules Specifying a Behavior and Consequence

Abstract

Rule-governed behavior (RGB) results from contact with a verbal description of a contingency as opposed to prior contact with that contingency. Despite its importance, research on the establishment of RGB with learners who do not display the skill is limited. Tarbox, Zuckerman, Bishop, Olive, and O’Hora (The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 27, 125-139, 2011) used multiple-exemplar training (MET) to teach children with autism spectrum disorder to follow rules specifying an antecedent and a behavior. We conducted a systematic replication of the Tarbox et al. study with three boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and extended those methods to rules specifying a behavior and either a preferred or nonpreferred consequence (e.g., “If you clap, then you get candy”). In baseline, participants typically followed a given instruction regardless of whether the consequence was preferred or nonpreferred. Following MET, all participants responded accurately to novel rules, indicating that MET may be an effective method to establish basic RGB repertoires.


Fri, 30 Sep 2016, 5:00 pm


Teaching a Child with Autism to Mand for Answers to Questions Using a Speech-Generating Device

Abstract

The current study systematically replicates and extends the findings of Ingvarsson and Hollobaugh (2010) by teaching a boy with autism who used a speech-generating device to mand for answers to unknown questions. The effects of the intervention were evaluated via a multiple baseline across stimulus sets. The intervention resulted in acquisition of both the mand for information and intraverbal responses (i.e., correct answers to previously unknown questions). However, generalization of the mand for information was limited.


Fri, 30 Sep 2016, 5:00 pm